I went through a lot of trouble trying to find a good, basic, sock pattern. I kept running into trouble when it came to heel turning. I did eventually find one. The problem is, the pattern no longer exists online, so I'm going to reproduce it for you :)
Needles: US5 or 3.75mm double pointed needles (set of 4)
Yarn: Worsted Weight. I've found that each 7oz skein can make 3 or more pairs of socks.
Gauge: 20st and 26 rows = 4 inches with 4mm needles in stocking stitch (um... I never pay attention to gauge, so I really don't know how to interpret this)
small/medium: 8.5-9.5" foot length
large/extra large: 9.6-11.5" foot length
*These can vary depending on the width of your foot
For converting shoe size to foot length, click here
In pattern, instructions written: small/medium(large/extra large)
Cast on 40(44) sts. 13(14)st on first two needles, 14(16)sts on last needle.
1.5" K1P1 rib.
Desired length of leg continued ribbing, stocking st, or K3P1 rib (preferred). I generally do another 1.5"
Heel flap: Transfer stitches from second needle to third needle so the number of sts on the third needle totals 20(22) sts. Repeat following 2 rows on THIRD NEEDLE ONLY (that's right, you're knitting flat for a little while), until the work measures 2.5(3)":
slip1, purl across, turn
slip1, knit across, turn
Make sure the last row is a knit row.
Turning heel: (don't worry about the extra stitches left on the row)
row1: P13(14), P2tog, P1, turn
row2: slip1, K7, slip1K1psso, K1, turn
row3: slip1, P8, P2tog, P1, turn
row4: slip1, K9, slip1K1psso, K1, turn
row5: slip1, P10, P2tog, P1, turn
row6: slip1, K11, slip1K1psso, K1, turn
large/extra large only-
row7: slip1, P12, P2tog, turn
row8: slip1, K12, slip1K1psso
Pick up 10(12) sts along the side of the heel closest to the yarn (aka, if knit side of heel is facing you, the left side). Use the little loops formed from the slipped sts on the heel flap and the extra needle. If you had two needles holding the other half of the sts while you were working the heel flap, consolidate them onto one needle. Knit across these sts or continue pattern from leg. Pick up 10(12)sts on the other side of the heel flap.
Now all four needles are being used. To free one up, knit 1/2 of the sts from the heel flap onto the the needle just used to pick up sts. Carefully transfer the other 1/2 to the needle on the other side of the heel flap. The round now starts in the middle of the heel. Sts should now be divided as follows: 17(19) on first needle, 20(22) on second needle (across top of foot), 17(19) on third needle.
Gusset: Alternate the following two rounds until there are 10(11) sts each on the first and third needle.
round 1: needle1- K to the last 3 sts, K2tog, K1; needle 2- continue leg pattern or knit; needle 3- K1, sl1K1psso, K to end of needle
round 2: K even (continue pattern on needle 2 if that's what you're doing)
After you get desired amount of sts on each needle, work even (aka continue round 2 pattern from above) until you get to desired foot length. This is the total foot length minus 3", measured from the little ridge where sts were picked up at the heel.
Toe: Work the following two rounds until there are only 20sts total.
round 1: needle 1- K until last 3 sts, K2tog, K1; needle 2- K1, sl1K1psso, K until last 3 sts (stop doing pattern if you were doing it previously), K2tog, K1; needle 3- K1, sl1K1psso, K until end of needle
round 2: K even
after the last round, knit the sts from needle 1 onto needle 3, so you are only working with 2 needle. Graft together. (for help with grafting, click here, go down to finishing: kitchener stitch)
*word of advice: cast on the second sock right away!!!
Credit for pattern: www.royea.net/sock.html
Unfortunately, the site no longer seems to exist.